Periods, Groups & Movements: Hudson River School
Hudson River School If you have a painting on the wall of your home today, it may be because of the influence of a group of painters known as the Hudson River artists. While not as individually famous as many other American painters of the 19th century, as a group they had an important contribution to make. Before the 1800's most artists were successful only if they could attract the notice of a wealthy family who could afford to have portraits painted. Artists not engaged in painting likenesses could be commissioned to recreate famous historical scenes to hang in the homes of the rich. But with the invention of the daguerreotype, a precursor to the photograph, it absorbed much of the demand for portrait painting. However, a new American school of landscape painting was about to emerge along with a new form of public entertainment — the art museum. Middle class people were about to become excited about art.

Before 1830, there was no such thing as an art museum open to the public. Artists began to create work for the enjoyment of the Middle Class. Soon, it became as common to see a painting over the fireplace of a home as to find a Bible on the kitchen table. In 1839, the American Art Union was created to raise money for artists' salaries. At first, 814 members paid $5 a piece to join the union; a decade later, there were 19,000 members and $40,000 in payments to artists in a single year. One of these artists was the landscape painter, Thomas Cole.

Hudson River SchoolCole had no formal training as an artist. He could not draw a likeness, or any real figure for that matter. But he understood something his peers did not. While artists had been painting Americans for over a century, no one had painted America before — the mountains, streams, vistas, valleys, the limitless frontier. So nature became the subject of his canvas as America's national myth and new identity developed. Cole became the spiritual father of the wilderness landscape artists. His early subjects were the Hudson River Valley and the Catskill Mountains, full of beautiful scenery, waterfalls, and primal mists.

Thus was a bold style of "native" American art created. Other landscape painters such as Asher Brown Durand and Fitzhugh Lane, and the panoramists Frederick Edwin Church and Albert Bierstadt put on canvas not just the areas around upper New York State but also the diversity of beauty found in the far west, the Sierra Mountains, the Rockies, Latin America, and Mexico. They tried to express a love of nature and a feeling for man's place in it. At the same time, culture was becoming the province of all people not just a wealthy elite. Thus, as foreigners looked on in amazement, the Hudson River artists left European tastes behind and began to paint the magical beauty and awesome power of nature in America with extraordinary success.

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Thomas Moran: The Field Sketches, 1856–1923 by Anne Morand, Joan Carpenter Troccoli (Introduction) – Hardcover: 325 pages; University of Oklahoma Press; 1st edition (Oct 15, 1996)

Most of Moran’s known field sketches are reproduced here. As described in the introduction, “their range encompasses summary contour drawings of the spectacular topography of the American West, luminous watercolors that simultaneously fix local color and evoke the artist’s rapturous response to the natural world, and fully realized works that nevertheless preserve the intensity of Moran’s firsthand experience of his plein air subjects.”

No serious formal study of Thomas Moran can be made without reference to this volume.

Thomas Moran: Artist of the Mountains by Thurman Wilkins William H. Goetzmann (Foreword) – Hardcover: 464 pages; University of Oklahoma Press; 2nd edition (Apr 15, 1998)

This extensively revised edition of Thurman Wilkins’s masterful and engaging biography - well illustrated in color and black-and-white - draws on new information and recent scholarship to place Thomas Moran more securely in the milieu of the Gilded Age. It also portrays more fully the controversies that surrounded the art of Moran’s time, as he became "the Dean of American Painters."

The Hudson River School: Nature and the American Vision by New-York Historical Society, Linda S. Ferber – Hardcover: 220 pages; Skira Rizzoli; Later edition (Oct 6, 2009) Best Seller

The paintings show how American artists embodied powerful ideas about nature, culture and history—including a belief that a special providence was manifest to Americans in the continent’s sublime landscape.”

Frederic Edwin Church: Romantic Landscapes and Seascapes by Gerald L. Carr – Hardcover: 136 pages; Adelson; 1st edition (Jan 2, 2008)

Published to accompany a major exhibition of notable landscapes and seascapes by Frederic Edwin Church (1826-1900), this catalogue offers a rich sampling of the artist's five decades of creative production.Reproduced here in full color, the works constitute a veritable travelogue of the places Church visited over the course of his illustrious career, including much of New York State and New England, Labrador, Central and South America, Greece, Turkey, and the Holy Land.

Fern Hunting among These Picturesque Mountains: Frederic Edwin Church in Jamaica by Elizabeth Mankin Kornhauser, Katherine E. Manthorne, Washburn S. Oberwager (Preface), Anthony Johnson (Foreword) – Hardcover: 80 pages; Cornell University Press; 1st edition (Jun 15, 2010)

The 2010 exhibit at Olana will help explain Church's working process by showing Sunset Jamaica and the resulting studio work The After Glow together; it will include five works never before exhibited and reveal Church's interesting use of his photography collection both as an aide-mémoire and as substrate for sketching. Fern Hunting among Picturesque Mountains includes forty-eight color illustrations, as well as essays by Elizabeth Mankin Kornhauser (on Church's Jamaica work) and Katherine Manthorne (about Church's friends and fellow artists who also traveled to Jamaica to paint).

Thomas Moran and the Surveying of the American West by Joni Louise Kinsey – Paperback: 240 pages; Smithsonian Books; 1st edition (Jun 17, 1992)

Presenting the first in-depth study of Thomas Moran's early western landscapes, Joni Louise Kinsey describes how the artist created three monumental paintings—The Grand Cañon of the Yellowstone (1872), The Chasm of the Colorado (1873-74), and The Mountain of the Holy Cross (1875)—that, in the aftermath of the Civil War, evoked the nation's spiritual journey and suggested its cultural upheaval. The author describes how the paintings reflected a new national identity of both failure and promise, and helped open the West for tourism and travel.

The Journey of Frederic Edwin Church through Colombia and Ecuador by Pablo Navas Sanz de Santamaria –

Frederic Edwin Church (1826-1900), one of the most representative characters of the Hudson River school, used to travel most part of the year to unknown territories with the intention of familiarizing with nature and take notes for his paintings. Inspired by Humboldt - the german humanist and scientist- and his expeditions, he started a journey that took him to diverse places in the world. Among those places, in 1853, he travelled the most exotic and remote places in Colombia and Ecuador. This book is an innovative contribution about his journey and shows for the first time most of the sketches and drawings made along his trip that now are part of the Cooper-Hewitt Museum in New York.

Treasures from Olana: Landscapes by Frederic Edwin Church by Kevin J. Avery, John Wilmerding (Introduction), George E. Pataki (Foreword) – Hardcover: 72 pages; Cornell University Press; 1st edition (Jul 15, 2005)

The wide variety of selections from Frederic Edwin Church's collection of his own paintings shows the master in all phases of his career, in sketches and finished paintings, depicting the breadth of his subjects and the high technical skills that established him as an eminent and influential artist in his own time.

Maine Sublime: Frederic Edwin Church's Landscapes of Mount Desert and Mount Katahdin by John Wilmerding – Hardcover: 80 pages; Cornell University Press; 1st edition (Jun 5, 2012)

Frederic Church, the acclaimed Hudson River School artist, first traveled to Maine in 1850. Over the next decades Church ventured repeatedly from his New York State home, Olana, to explore the Maine coast and its rocky islands. He also frequently trekked inland to visit Mount Katahdin. Maine provided sensational sunsets, robust waves crashing on rocky shores, and an abundance of wilderness well suited to Church's artistic vision.

Maine Sublime brings together all of the artwork in the Olana collection resulting from and inspired by Church’s travels, from finished oil sketches that Church selected to mount, frame, and display at his home to pencil sketches and cartoons that he stored in portfolios

George Inness in Italy by Mark D. Mitchell, Judy Dion – Paperback: 60 pages; Yale University Press (Mar 29, 2011)

Mark D. Mitchell is Associate Curator of American Art and Manager, Center for American Art, and Judy Dion is Luce Foundation Assistant Conservator of Paintings, both at the Philadelphia Museum of Art.

Frederic Edwin Church: Catalogue Raisonne of Works of Art at Olana State Historic Site by Gerald L. Carr – Hardcover: 635 pages; Cambridge University Press; 1st edition (Jun 24, 1994)

This is the largest project thus far undertaken on Frederic Edwin Church: a comprehensive scholarly catalogue of his works of art still at Olana State Historical Site, his former home in upstate New York. Divided into sixteen chronological sections, it covers 736 drawings, paintings, and prints, spanning nearly sixty years of his life.

Different Views in Hudson River School Painting by Judith O'Toole, Arnold Skolnick – Hardcover: 160 pages; Columbia University Press (Feb 2006)

"An expansive and beautifully presented anthology of the art and the artists who pioneered the first native style of American landscape painting...A perfect edition to personal, academic, and community library Art History collections, Different Views in Hudson River School Painting is very highly recommended and informative reading." —Michael J. Carson, The Midwest Book Review

Frederic Church, Winslow Homer, and Thomas Moran: Tourism and the American Landscape by Barbara Bloemink, Sarah Burns, Gail Davidson, Karal Ann Marling, Floramae McCarron-Cates – Hardcover: 192 pages; Bulfinch (May 17, 2006)

The companion to the Cooper-Hewitt exhibition of Americas scenic wonders, as seen through the eyes of three of its greatest 19th-century artists. During the years following the Civil War, many artists, including Homer, Church, and Moran, created images of Americas scenic wonders and great landscape icons. These works, as well as decorative art objects, popular literature, photographs, and other ephemera helped to make the countrys landscape a source of national pride and promoted landscape tourism.

George Inness and the Visionary Landscape by Adrienne Baxter Bell – Hardcover: 176 pages; George Braziller; 1st edition (Nov 10, 2003)

Inspired landscape painter George Inness (1825-94) was born in New York State's beautiful Hudson Valley and could easily have been part of the world-renowned Hudson River School. Instead, as Bell argues so persuasively in this rare, invaluable, and luminously illustrated monograph, Inness was far more concerned with metaphysics than with representational depictions of nature. Sojourns in Europe brought him into sympathy with the "emotionalism and painterly practices of the Barbizon School," Bell writes, but the most crucial influence on his later work was his immersion in the writings of Swedenborg, which inspired him to paint landscapes emblematic of the Swedenborgian vision of "spiritual influx," that is, the infusion of divinity into nature. Psychologist and philosopher William James also shaped Inness' meditative aesthetics with his vision of consciousness as a "stream of thought" and his observation of how mystical experiences "soften nature's outlines and open out the strangest possibilities and perspectives." The latter provides a perfect description for Inness' transcendent landscapes—gorgeous and radiant scenes that embody life's interconnectivity, mystery, timeless beauty, and untarnished hope. —Donna Seaman Copyright © American Library Association. All rights reserved

Hudson River School: Masterworks from the Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art by Elizabeth Mankin Kornhauser, Amy Ellis, Maureen Miesmer – Hardcover: 180 pages; Yale University Press (Oct 8, 2003)

Hudson River School paintings are among America's most admired and well-loved artworks. Such artists as Thomas Cole, Frederic Church, and Albert Bierstadt left a powerful legacy to American art, embodying in their epic works the reverence for nature and the national idealism that prevailed during the middle of the nineteenth century. This book features fifty-seven major Hudson River School paintings from the collection of the Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art, recognized as the most extensive and finest in the world. Gorgeously and amply illustrated, the book includes paintings by all the major figures of the Hudson River School. Each work is beautifully reproduced in full color and is accompanied by a concise description of its significance and historical background. The book also includes artists' biographies and a brief introduction to American nineteenth-century landscape painting and the Wadsworth Atheneum's unique role in collecting Hudson River pictures.

Thomas Moran by Nancy K. Anderson, Thomas P. Bruhn, Joni L. Kinsey, Anne Morand – Hardcover: 400 pages; Yale University Press (Oct 20, 1997)

Moran's watercolors of the Yellowstone country so impressed Congress that it established the second U.S. national park in less than two months in 1872. Moran's subsequent monumental landscape, The Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone, became one of the most famous paintings of the nineteenth century, and Moran enjoyed a prolific and successful career thereafter.

Hudson River School Visions: The Landscapes of Sanford R. Gifford by Kevin J. Avery, Eleanor Jones Harvey, Franklin Kelly, Heidi Applegate – Hardcover: 304 pages; Yale University Press (Oct 1, 2003)

Gifford was a founder of The Metropolitan Museum of Art. At the time of his death, he was so esteemed by the New York art world that the Museum mounted an exhibition of his work-its first accorded an American artist-and published a Memorial Catalogue that for nearly a century remained the principal source on the artist.

Now, to coincide with a long-overdue exhibition of Gifford's work, an important new book is being issued. This volume features essays examining Gifford's position in the Hudson River School, his Catskill and Adirondack subjects, his patrons, and his adventures as a traveler both at home and abroad. More than seventy of the artist's best-known sketches and paintings are discussed and reproduced in color.

The Voyage of the Icebergs: Frederic Church's Arctic Masterpiece by Eleanor Jones Harvey, Gerald L. Carr, Eleanor Jones Harvey – Hardcover: 112 pages; Dallas Museum of Art (Sep 1, 2002)

This beautiful book tells the fascinating story of The Icebergs and provides a detailed look at the cycle of fame, neglect, and resuscitation of both this masterwork and Church's career. In 1979, The Icebergs sold at auction for $2.5 million, at the time the highest amount ever paid for an American painting. The sale coincided with an upswing in the popularity and acclaim accorded to American landscape painting, catalyzing the market for American art and contributing to a revival in the prestige of Church and the Hudson River School. Drawing on extensive interviews with many of the people involved with the painting's rediscovery, sale, and eventual donation to the Dallas Museum of Art, the author considers the way marketing has defined The Icebergs.

This book accompanies an exhibition at the Dallas Museum of Art from September 8, 2002 until January 15, 2003.

The Hudson River School (Treasures of Art) by Trewin Copplestone – Hardcover: 80 pages; Gramercy (Aug 17, 1999)

The so-called Hudson River School has a place of special importance in the history of American painting. Although there were many 'professional' artists working in the early and developing American society from the 17th to the 19th centuries, most of them, apart from the many charming naive practitioners, were itinerant portrait painters or those who looked to Europe for their style and subject matter. It was not until the early 19th century that artists began to consider the landscape which surrounded them as an interesting subject in itself; when they did, they perceived a grandeur, spaciousness and quality of natural beauty which filled them with awe and wonderment.

The story of the artists and their pictorial crusade is included in this selective survey which, of its nature, can only include a small number of the very many who have been identified with the Hudson River School.

Thomas Moran: Drawings and Paintings by Raya Yotova – Paperback: 72 pages; CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform; 1st edition (Oct 13, 2018)

Thomas Moran was given fame for his oil paintings and watercolors. The peak of Moran’s art matched with the attractiveness of chromolithography, which he employed to make color prints of his paintings, so that they could be broadly circulated. Moran was as well one of the heads of the engraving revitalization in the America and England. He was occasionally named as one of the founders of the Rocky Mountain School of artists.

Frederic Church: A Painter's Pilgrimage by Kenneth John Myers, Kevin J. Avery, Gerald L. Carr, Mercedes Volait – Paperback: 224 pages; Detroit Institute of Arts (Oct 24, 2017)

Taking a closer look at this geographical and thematic shift in Church’s practice, this handsome book brings together the artist’s major paintings of Athens, Rome, Jerusalem, and the surrounding region. The essays concentrate on a set of six major paintings of architectural and archaeological marvels; one essay also spotlights Olana, Church’s home in New York State, which reflects the influence of Middle Eastern design. This impressive volume stands apart in its new approach to the artist’s work and its quest to determine why and how this quintessentially American figure was drawn to scenery and themes from the other side of the globe.

Frederic Edwin Church by Franklin Kelly, Stephen Jay Gould, James Anthony Ryan, Debora Rindge – Hardcover: 211 pages; Smithsonian (Nov 17, 1989)

Traces the life and career of the nineteenth-century American landscape artist, shows Church's most important paintings, and discusses his influences and techniqu

Frederic Church: The Art and Science of Detail by Jennifer Raab – Hardcover: 240 pages; Yale University Press; 1st edition (Nov 3, 2015)

Moving between historical context and close readings of famous canvases—including Niagara, The Heart of the Andes, and The Icebergs—Raab argues that Church’s art challenged an earlier model of painting based on symbolic unity, revealing a representation of nature with surprising connections to scientific discourses of the time. The book traces Church’s movement away from working in oil on canvas to shaping the physical landscape of Olana, his self-designed estate on the Hudson River, a move that allowed the artist to rethink scale and process while also engaging with pressing ecological questions. Beautifully illustrated with dramatic spreads and striking details of Church’s works, Frederic Church: The Art and Science of Detail offers a profoundly new understanding of this canonical artist.

A Wilder Image Bright: Hudson River School Paintings from the Manoogian Collection by Kevin Sharp – Paperback: 152 pages; Vero Beach Museum of Art; 1st edition (Jul 2004)

The Hudson River School is really the first coherent school of American art and it helped shape the mythos of the American landscape. The artists of the School, working from 1825 to 1875, infused the American landscape with the dreams and ambitions of a young nation poised for greatness.

Glories of the Hudson: Frederic Edwin Church's Views from Olana by Evelyn D. Trebilcock, Valerie A. Balint, John K. Howat (Foreword) – Hardcover: 96 pages; Cornell University Press; 1st edition (Jul 1, 2009)

In 1609, Henry Hudson sailed up the river that now bears his name. The exhibition and its accompanying publication Glories of the Hudson: Frederic Edwin Church's Views from Olana mark the quadricentennial of his discovery by highlighting Frederic Church's sketches of the prospect from his hilltop home overlooking the river.

American Paradise: The World of the Hudson River School by K. Avery – Hardcover: 448 pages; Harry N. Abrams; 1st edition (Nov 1, 1987)

The excellent catalog of the exhibition organized by the Metropolitan Museum. The well-written essays, by Met curators, chart the 19th-century rise and fall of the first native school of landscape painting. The catalog includes most of the well-known and many lesser-known Hudson River pictures, discussed in depth for both specialists and generalists. The book is well-organized and well-indexed, and, while not breaking great new ground, is highly recommended. The plates are generally good. -Jack Perry Brown, Art Institute of Chicago Libs. Copyright 1988 Reed Business Information, Inc.

Frederic Edwin Church: The Icebergs by Gerald L. Carr – Paperback; University of Texas Press (Dec 1980)

The Hudson River School: Nature and the American All Regions; Discs: 2; 577 minutes

For over 100 years artist's have tried to master the look and feel of the Hudson River School Painters. These paintings created by Thomas Cole, Asher B. Durand and others had a special sense of air, dramatic light, distance and a luminous quality, which others have tried to copy unsuccessfully. Artist Erik Koeppel has spent over a decade studying these masters, researching their writings and notes, and discovering how they captured the feel of nature in their paintings. One time each summer Koeppel teaches a small group of painters at the Hudson River Fellowship to teach these timeless techniques. Students apply from all over the world to be selected to attend. Now you can learn these techniques from this young master. Now, for the first time Erik Koeppel shares these lost techniques.

George Inness and the Science of Landscape by Rachael Ziady DeLue – Paperback: 350 pages; University of Chicago Press; 1st edition (Apr 30, 2007)

This lavishly illustrated work reveals Inness as profoundly invested in the science and philosophy of his time and illuminates the complex manner in which the fields of art and science intersected in nineteenth-century America. Long-awaited, this reevaluation of one of the major figures of nineteenth-century American art will prove to be a seminal text in the fields of art history and American studies.

Landscape Painting Comes to America by Katherine L. Lewis – Paperback: 156 pages; YBK Publishers (Jun 30, 2013)

Written by a painter, details the development of landscape painting from blank canvas to exhibition, documenting its long struggle to become a genre unto itself while relating that development to its historic migration across an ocean.

In Search of the Promised Land: Paintings by Frederic Edwin Church by Gerald L. Carr – Paperback: 204 pages; University Press of New England (Feb 2001)

All That Is Glorious Around Us: Paintings from the Hudson River School by John Driscoll – Hardcover: 144 pages; Cornell University Press (Sep 1997)

This volume presents through their paintings the major artists of the Hudson River School, along with many lesser-known figures. Seventy-eight full-page color illustrations of representative work are supplemented with biographical sketches and an extensive bibliography. John Driscoll's introductory essay surveys the ideas, events, and figures of the Hudson River School movement, and explores the diversity of nineteenth-century Romantic American landscape painting.

Thomas Moran's West: Chromolithography, High Art, And Popular Taste by Joni L. Kinsey, Thomas Moran – Hardcover: 260 pages; University Press of Kansas (Jan 11, 2006)

Joni Kinsey, a preeminent authority on Moran, shows that these and other chromolithographs by the artist in fact had an important place in American visual culture and were a vital part of the artist's career. Thomas Moran's West reproduces this renowned collection, along with two dozen other color plates and over 100 black-and-white illustrations, to recapture their impact on the American imagination.

Both a visual feast and an authoritative treatise, Thomas Moran's West gives us breath-taking images of unspoiled wilderness as it sheds new light on how artistic portrayals of the West contributed to our national identity.

This book features 167 photographs, 50 in full color.

Frederic Church by John K. Howat – Hardcover: 224 pages; Yale University Press (Nov 11, 2005)

The life of landscape painter Frederic Edwin Church (1826– 1900) encompassed an expansive period in United States history, when the nation’s commercial, diplomatic, cultural, and scientific achievements blossomed. This lavishly illustrated book—the only comprehensive study of the artist available—describes Church’s life and career and details the ways in which the artist played a part in America’s development during the nineteenth century. John K. Howat, a distinguished scholar of American landscape painting, discusses the many talents of Frederic Church while also explaining the rich complexities of his major works.

For admirers of the Hudson River School, American landscape painting, and the history of nineteenth-century America, Frederic Church is an invaluable book to own.

American Sublime: Landscape Painting in the United States 1820-1880 by Andrew Wilton, Tim Barringer – Paperback: 256 pages; Princeton University Press (Jul 2, 2003)

The painters who came to be known as the Hudson River School—Thomas Cole, Asher B. Durand, Frederic Edwin Church, Jasper Cropsey, Sanford Robinson Gifford, and others—found inspiration in our young country's natural wonders and were the first to paint many of its still-wild vistas.

As a tribute to some of our most important American artists and the land that inspired them, this stunningly illustrated book will have a deep and wide appeal.

Thomas Cole: Drawn to Nature by John R. Stilgoe, Ellwood C. Parry III Frances F. Dunwell, Christine C. Robinson – Paperback: 112 pages; Albany Institute of History and Art; 1st edition (Nov 15, 1993)

Provides a new look at the founder of the Hudson River School of American landscape painting.

The Life and Works of Thomas Cole by Louis Legrand Noble, Elliot S. Vesell – Paperback: 324 pages; Black Dome Press; 1st paperback edition (Aug 1, 1997)

During his peak popularity in the 1820s -1840s, artists flocked to New York's Catskill Mountains and Hudson Valley to confront the wilderness and emulate Cole's vision, and America's first indiginous art movement was born—the Hudson River School of landscape painting.

Thomas Cole by Earl A. Powell – Hardcover: 144 pages; Harry N. Abrams Inc; 1st edition (Oct 1, 1990)

Thomas Cole (1801-1848) is widely considered the founder of the popular Hudson River School of painting. Cole, who emigrated to the United States from England in 1819, awakened a passion for landscape that would characterize American painting throughout the 19th century and change the way Americans, and the world, viewed the young nation.

In a series of breathtaking canvases, painted principally in the Catskill Mountains, Cole portrayed vast spaces, awesome horizons, and vibrant color. Earl A. Powell III, director of the National Gallery of Art, Washington, traces Cole's development and explores the Romantic theories that guided his thinking and informed his vision. Superb color reproductions bring Cole's paintings to life, revealing the America that once was.

Knights of the Brush: The Hudson River School and the Moral Landscape by James F. Cooper, Frederick Turner – Hardcover: 109 pages; Hudson Hills Press; 1st edition (Dec 1, 1999)

This work explores a period in American art and culture when both were infused with a strong sense of righteousness and the certainty that the artist must celebrate nature and the deity. The chapter headings--from "Seeing" to "Virtue," "Chivalry" to "Christendom"--echo the ideas expressed in the paintings, contrasting with what art critic Cooper sees as a cultural crisis in our times. Unfortunately, this work comes across as preachy and sentimental, perhaps because of the zealous morality of the time it examines. —Paula Frosch, Metropolitan Museum of Art Lib., New York Copyright 2000 Reed Business Information, Inc.

Fire & Ice: Treasures from the Photographic Collection of Frederic Church at Olana by David Ost, Thomas Weston Fels, Dahesh Museum of Art, Kevin J. Avery (Introduction) – Hardcover: 250 pages; Dahesh Museum of Art (Sep 28, 2006

Church was a boy of thirteen when the invention of photography was announced to the world. As a painter, he was of the first generation to grow up with photographs and consider them a useful adjunct to his work. Church collected photographs and daguerreotypes by early pioneers of the art, including Désiré Charnay, Eadweard Muybridge, and Carleton Watkins. His collection appears to have served largely as a source of inspiration and armchair travel, reminding him of favorite locations and details of architecture, culture, and landscape.

In Fire & Ice, images from Church's collection are shown along with a selection of his own oil sketches, drawings, and archival materials. Some of the photographs are devoted to the varied geographical interests reflected in Church's art and travels: Central and South America, the Middle East, and the polar North. Others served as visual reference for the design and construction of Olana. Lavishly illustrated, Fire and Ice shows how the photographs in Church's collection echoed the principal stages of the painter's career.

The Hudson River School: American Landscape Artists by Bert D. Yaeger – Hardcover: 80 pages; New Line Books (Dec 30, 2005)

Frederick Edwin Church – Color, NTSC, Jun 20, 2000

Magnificent, dramatic, sweeping, fantastic, poetic, powerful: All of these describe the paintings of Frederic Edwin Church. The National Gallery's exhibit of Church's finest works traces his career as a leading artist of the Hudson River School, America's preeminent 19th-century landscape painters.

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